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医学术语:从放弃到入门

发布者: 译匠 | 发布时间: 2017-7-27 13:35| 查看数: 522| 评论数: 0|帖子模式

医学术语:从放弃到入门

医学术语:从放弃到入门

要想学习医学术语,先要了解其基本定义、学会分析单词构成成分、掌握常见构词成分(combining form)、词根(root)、词缀(prefix suffix),方能窥知一二、略有所成。

一、什么是医学术语?

Medicalterminology is language that is used to accurately describe the human body andassociated components, conditions, processes and procedures in a science-basedmanner. It is to be used in the medical and nursing fields.【1】

医学术语是一门语言,它以科学为基础的方式用来精确描述人体和与之相关的部分、条件、过程和程序。它用于医学和护理领域。

二、学习医学术语的宗旨【2】

  • Analyze words by dividing theminto component parts.
    通过划分构词成分来分析单词。
  • Relate the medical terms to thestructure and function of the human body.
    将医学术语与人体的解剖结构和功能相联系。
  • Be aware of spelling and pronunciationproblems.

       注意拼写和发音问题。

三、单词构成的常见公式

医学术语:从放弃到入门

医学术语:从放弃到入门

词根 + 连接元音 + 后缀


词根 + 连接元音 + 词根 + 连接元音 + 后缀

医学术语:从放弃到入门

医学术语:从放弃到入门

四、医学术语的重要成分
  • 词根(root):单词的基础(the foundation of the word)。每个医学术语必有一个或更多。
  • 后缀(suffix):单词的结尾(word ending)。每个医学术语必有一个后缀。
  • 前缀(prefix):单词的开头(word beginning)。并非每个医学术语都有前缀。
  • 连接元音(combining vowel):通常是 o ,连接词根与词缀或词根与词根。
  • 构词成分(combining form):由词根和连接元音组成(root + combining vowel = COMBINING FORM)。


五、三大通则
  • 从后缀往前理解整个术语的含义
  • 若后缀是元音打头,则去掉连接元音:gastritis,不是「gastroitis」
  • 用元音连接两个词根:gastroenterology,不是「gastrenterology」


六、学习方法
  • 用斜杠「/」来划分每个术语
  • 识记常见词根词缀
  • 制作单词抽认卡(flash cards)
  • 按时复习


七、常见词根、词缀和构词成分总结

  • 常见构词成分

Combining Form
构词成分
Meaning
Example  (Definition)
aden/o
Gland 腺体
adenopathy 腺体病 (gland disease)
carcin/o
Cancer 肿瘤
carcinoma 上皮组织来源的恶性肿瘤  (cancerous tumor)
cardi/o
heart 心脏
cardiac 心脏的 (pertaining to the heart)
chem/o
chemical 化学的
chemotherapy (treatment  withchemicals
Cis/o
To cut 切开
Incision (process  of cutting into)
Dermat/o
skin 皮肤
Dermatology 皮肤病学 (study of the skin)
Enter/o
Small intestines 小肠
Pertaining to the  small intestines
Gastr/o
Stomach 胃
Gastric 胃的 (pertaining to the stomach)
Gynec/o
Female 女性
Gynecology 妇科学 (study of females)
Hemat/o
Blood 血
Pertaining to the  blood)
Hydr/o
Water 水
Hydrocele 水囊肿 (Protrusion of water含水的凸起)
Immune/o
Immune 免疫
Immunology 免疫学 (study of immunity)
Laryng/o
Voice box 喉
Laryngeal 喉的 (pertaining to the voice box)
Morph/o
Shape 形态
Morphology 形态学 (study of shape)
Nephr/o
Kidney 肾
Nephromegaly 巨肾 (enlarged kidney)
Neur/o
Nerve 神经
Neural 神经的 (pertaining to a nerve 与神经有关 )
Ophthalm/o
Eye 眼
Ophthalmic  (pertaining to the eye)
Ot/o
Ear 耳
Otic 耳的 (pertaining to the ear)
Path/o
Disease 病
Pathology 病理学 (study of disease)
Pulmon/o
Lung 肺
Pulmonary 肺的 (pertaining to the lungs)
Rhin/o
Nose 鼻子
Rhinoplasty 鼻成型术 (surgical repair of the nose)
Ur/o
Urine, urinary  tract 尿路
Urology 泌尿外科 (study of the urinary tract)
2.  常见前缀
Prefix
前缀
Meaning
Example (Definition)
a-
Without, away from 无
Aphasia 失语症 (without speech)
An-
Without 缺
Anoxia 缺氧 (without oxygen)
Ante
Before, in front of 前
Antepartum 产前的 (before birth)
Anti-
Against 抗
Antibiotic 抗生素 (against life)
Auto-
Self 自体的
Autograft 自体移植物
(a graft from one’s  own body)
Brady-
Slow
Bradycardia 心动过缓 (slow heartbeat)
Dys-
Painful, difficult 困难
Dyspnea 呼吸困难 (painful breathing)
Endo-
Within, inner 内
Endoscope 内窥镜 (instrument to view within)
Epi-
Upon, over 上
Epigastric 上腹部
(upon or over the stomach)
Eu-
Normal, good 正常
Eupnea 平静呼吸 (normal breathing)
Hetero-
Different
Heterograft 异种移植
(a graft from  another person’s body)
Homo-
Same
Homozygous 纯合子 (having two identical genes)
Hydro-
Water 水
Hydrotherapy 水疗法 (water therapy)
Hyper-
Over, above 超过
Hypertrophy 肥大 (overdevelopment)
Hypo-
Under, below
Hypoglossal 舌下的 (under the tongue)
Infra-
Under, beneath, below
Infraorbital 眶下的
(below, under the eye socket 眼窝 )
Inter-
Among, between
Intervertebral 椎间盘 (between the vertebrae)
Intra-
Within, inside
Intravenous 静脉内的 (inside, within a vein)
Macro-
Large
Macrocephalic 巨头 (having a large head)
Micro-
Small
Microcephalic 小头 (having a small head)
Neo-
New
Neonate 新生儿 (newborn)
Pan-
All
Pancarditis 全心炎 (inflammation of all the heart)
Para-
Beside, beyond, near
Paranasal 鼻旁的 (near or alongside the nose)
Per-
Through
Percutaneous 经皮的 (through the skin)
Peri-
Around
Pericardial 心包的 (around the heart)
Post-
After
Postpartum 产后 (after birth)
Pre-
Before, in front of
Prefrontal 前额的 (in front of the frontal bone)
Pseudo-
False
Pseudocyesis 假孕 (false pregnancy)
Retro-
Backward, behind
Retrograde 逆行 (movement in a backwards diretion)
Sub-
Below, under 下
Subcutaneous 皮下的
(under, below the skin)
Super-
Above, excess
Supernumerary 额外的 (above the normal number)
Supra-
Above 前
Suprapubic 耻骨前 (above the pubic bone)
Tachy-
Rapid, fast
Tachycardia 心动过速 (fast heartbeat)
Trans-
Through, across
Transurethral 经尿道的 (across the  urethra)
Ultra-
Beyond, excess
Ultrasound 超声 (high-frequency sound waves)
3. 数字前缀
Prefix
Meaning
Example (Definition)
Bi-
Two
Bilateral 双侧 (two sides)
di-
Two
Diplegic 双侧瘫 (paralysis of two extremities四肢)
Hemi-
Half
Hemiplegia 偏瘫 (paralysis of one side of the body
Mono-
One
Monoplegia 单瘫 (paralysis of one extremity)
Multi-
Many
Mutigravida 经产妇 (woman pregnant more than once)
Nulli-
None
Nulligravida 未孕妇 (woman with no pregnancies)
Poly-
Many
Polyuria 多尿 (large amounts of urine)
Quad-
Four
Quadriplegia 四肢瘫痪 (paralysis of all four extremities)
Semi-
Partial, half
Semiconscious 半意识 (partially conscious)
Tri-
Three
Triceps 三头肌 (muscle with three heads)
Uni-
one
Unilateral 单侧 (one side)
4. 常见后缀
Suffix
后缀
Meaning
Example (Definition)
-algia
Pain 疼痛
Gastralgia 胃痛 (stomach pain)
-cele
Hernia 疝,
protrusion 突出
Cystocele 膀胱突出症 (protrusion of the bladder)
-cise
Cut
Excise 切除 (to cut out)
-dynia
Pain
Cardiodynia 心痛 (heart pain)
-ectasis
dilatation 扩张
Bronchiectasis 支气管扩张 (dilated bronchi)
-ectopia
Displacement 异位
Corectopia 瞳孔异位 (pupil of the eye not centered)
--gen
That which produces 致
Mutagen 诱变剂 (that which produces mutations)
-genesis
Produces, generates 生成
Osteogenesis 骨生成 (produces bone)
-genic
Producing
Carcinogenic 致癌的 (producing cancer)
-ia
State, condition状态
Hemiplegia 偏瘫 (condition of being half paralyzed)
-iasis
Abnormal condition
Lithiasis 结石症 (abnormal condition of stones)
-ism
State of
Hypothyroidism 甲状腺功能减退
(state of low thyroid)
-itis
Imflammation 炎
Cellulitis 蜂窝织炎 (inflammation of cells)
-logist
One who studies 学家
Cardiologist 心脏病学家 (one who studies the heart)
-logy
Study of 学科
Cardiology 心脏病学 (study of the heart)
-lysis
Destruction
Osteolysis 溶骨 (bone destruction)
-malacia
Abnormal softening 软化
Chondromalacia 软骨软化 (abnormal cartilage softening)
-megaly
Enlargement, large 扩大
Cardiomegaly 心脏扩大 (enlarged heart)
-oma
Tumor, mass 癌
Carcinoma 癌 (cancerous tumor)
-osis
Abnormal condition
Cyanosis 发绀 (abnormal condition of being blue)
-pathy
Disease 病
Myopathy 肌病 (muscle disease)
-plasia
Development, growth 发育
Dysplasia 发育不良 (abnormal development)
-plasm
Formation, development
Neoplasm 新生物 (new formation)
-ptosis
Drooping 脱垂
Roctoptosis 直肠脱垂 (drooping rectum)
-rrhage
Excessive, abnormal flow
Hemorrhage 出血 (excessive bleeding)
-rrhea
Discharge, flow 分泌物
Rhinorrhea 鼻溢 (discharge from the nose)
-rrhexis
Rupture 破裂
Hysterorrhexis 子宫破裂 (ruptured uterus)
-sclerosis
Hardening 硬化
Arteriosclerosis 动脉硬化 (hardening of an artery)
-stenosis
Narrowing 狭窄
Angiostenosis 血管狭窄 (narrowing of a vessel)
-therapy
Treatment 疗法
Chemotherapy 化疗 (treatment with chemicals)
-trophy
Nourishment,development
Hypertrophy 肥大 (excessive development)
-uria
Condition of the urine 尿
Hematuria 血尿 (blood in the urine)
5. 手术相关后缀
Suffix
Meaning
Example (Definition)
-centesis
Puncture to withdraw fluid 穿刺术
Anthrocentesis (puncture to withdraw fluid from a joint)
-ectomy
Surgical removal 切除术
Gastrectomy 胃切除术 (surgically remove the stomach)
-ostomy
Surgically create an opening 造口术
Colostomy 结肠造口术 (surgically create an opening for the colon through the  abdominal wall)
-otomy
Cutting into 切开术
Thoracotomy 胸廓切开术
(cutting into the chest)
-pexy
Surgical fixation 固定术
Nephropexy 肾固定术 (surgical fixation of a kidney)
-plasty
Surgical repair 整形术
Dermatoplasty 植皮术 (surgical repair of the skin)
-rrhaphy
suture 缝合
Myorrhaphy 肌缝合术 (suture together muscle)
6. 检查相关后缀
Suffix
Meaning
Example (Definition)
-gram
Record or picture 图
Electrocardiogram 心电图 (record of heart’s electricity)
-graph
Instrument for recording 记录仪
Electrocardiograph 心电图仪 (instrument for recording the heart’s electrical  activity)
-graphy
Process of recording 方法
Electrocardiography 心电图描记法
(process of recording the heart’s electrical activity)
-Meter
Instrument for measuring 测定仪
Audiometer 听度计 (instrument to measure hearing)
-metry
Process of measuring 测定
Audiometry 听力测定
(process of  measuring hearing)
-scope
Instrument for viewing 镜
Gastroscope 胃镜 (instrument to view stomach)
-scopy
Process of visually examining
Gastroscopy 胃镜检查法 (process of visually examining the stomach)

参考文献

【1】维基百科 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_terminology

【2】THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE, TENTH EDITION P2

译匠编辑,内容参考源:丁香园医生。

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